Cephalopoda

Cephalopods
Class Cephalopoda Cuvier, 1798

et: peajalgsed; sv: bläckfiskar; fi: pääjalkaiset; ru: головоногие;

List of Baltoscandian species (may not be complete, up to 1000 species displayed)

  1. Adamsoceras holmi | Kunda Stage
  2. Aluveroceras ievense | Jõhvi Substage
  3. Ancistroceras torelli | Uhaku Stage
  4. Ancistroceras undulatum | Uhaku Stage
  5. Anthoceras vaginatum | Kunda Stage
  6. Archigeisonoceras elegatulum |
  7. Archigeisonoceras folkeslundense | Lasnamägi Stage
  8. Archigeisonoceras picus | Volkhov Stage
  9. Archigeisonoceras repplingense | Volkhov Stage
  10. Arionoceras lotskirkense | Aseri Stage → Lasnamägi Stage
  11. Balticoceras discors | Rakvere Stage
  12. Bathmoceras holmi |
  13. Bathmoceras linnarssoni | Kunda Stage
  14. Beloitoceras cautis | Keila Stage
  15. Beloitoceras estonicum | Vormsi Stage
  16. Beloitoceras siljaense | Katian
  17. Beloitoceras sinuososeptatum | Vormsi Stage → Pirgu Stage
  18. Bentoceras rubeli | Kunda Stage
  19. Bickmorites falcigerus | Jaani Stage
  20. Bodoceras torticoni | Upper Ordovician
  21. Botellusoceras torpense | Lasnamägi Stage
  22. Cameroceras aluverense | Jõhvi Substage
  23. Cameroceras hasta | Vormsi Stage
  24. Cameroceras kegelense | Keila Stage
  25. Cameroceras kerstovense | Kukruse Stage
  26. Cameroceras kuckersense | Kukruse Stage
  27. Cameroceras lasnamaense | Lasnamägi Stage
  28. Cameroceras ojamense | Idavere Substage
  29. Cameroceras ontikaense | Lasnamägi Stage
  30. Cameroceras paldiskiense | Lasnamägi Stage
  31. Cameroceras planum | Lasnamägi Stage → Uhaku Stage
  32. Cameroceras rakverense | Rakvere Stage
  33. Cameroceras regulus | Vormsi Stage
  34. Cameroceras shundrorovense | Idavere Substage
  35. Cameroceras spongistraticum | Idavere Substage
  36. Cameroceras tallinense | Lasnamägi Stage
  37. Cameroceras ubjaense | Kukruse Stage
  38. Cameroceras vertebrale | Rakvere Stage
  39. Charactoceras estonicum | Pirgu Stage
  40. Charactoceras kallholnense | Katian
  41. Charactoceras raettvikense | Katian
  42. Charactoceras suecicum | Katian
  43. Charactoceras triangulum | Katian
  44. Chisiloceras balticum | Lasnamägi Stage
  45. Chisiloceras luganusense | Lasnamägi Stage
  46. Choanoceras mutabile | Wenlock
  47. Clathroceras plicatum | Ludlow
  48. Cochlioceras angustiseptatum | Aseri Stage → Uhaku Stage
  49. Cochlioceras avus | Kunda Stage
  50. Ctenoceras schmidti | Aseri Formation → Lasnamägi Stage
  51. Ctenoceras sweeti | Lasnamägi Stage
  52. Cumingsoceras complanatus | upper Silurian
  53. Curtoceras abditus | Keila Stage
  54. Curtoceras estonicum | Aseri Stage → Uhaku Stage
  55. Curtoceras krestovense | Kukruse Stage
  56. Curtoceras teres | Aseri Stage → Uhaku Stage
  57. Cyclolituites kjerulfi | Kunda Stage
  58. Cyrtorizoceras borni |
  59. Cyrtorizoceras thorsundi | Katian
  60. Dalecarlioceras bodense | Katian
  61. Dalecarlioceras constrictum | Katian
  62. Dalecarlioceras dalecarlicum | Katian
  63. Danoceras broeggeri | Katian
  64. Danoceras scandinavicum | Katian → Hirnantian
  65. Dawsonoceras annulatum | Wenlock
  66. Dawsonoceras barrandei | Wenlock
  67. Dawsonoceras fenestratum | Porkuni Stage
  68. Dawsonoceras gregarium | Hirnantian
  69. Dawsonoceras obsoletum | Paadla Stage → Ohesaare Stage
  70. Dawsonoceras stumburi | Vormsi Stage
  71. Dideroceras frisense | Volkhov Stage
  72. Dideroceras glauconiticum | Volkhov Stage
  73. Dideroceras laxiseptatum | Volkhov Stage
  74. Dideroceras leetsense | Tremadocian
  75. Dideroceras magnisiphonicum | Lasnamägi Stage
  76. Dideroceras popovkense | Volkhov Stage
  77. Dideroceras purtsense | Kunda Stage
  78. Dideroceras rectestrigatum | Lasnamägi Stage → Uhaku Stage
  79. Diestoceras parallelum | Katian
  80. Discoceras angulatum | Pirgu Stage
  81. Discoceras antiquissimum | Vormsi Stage → Pirgu Stage
  82. Discoceras bandonis | Idavere Substage
  83. Discoceras boreale | Darriwilian → Sandbian
  84. Discoceras costatum |
  85. Discoceras gubkovense | Idavere Substage
  86. Discoceras ievense | Jõhvi Substage
  87. Discoceras rarospira | Haljala Stage → Nabala Stage
  88. Discoceras roemeri | Vormsi Stage → Pirgu Stage
  89. Discoceras siljanense | Hirnantian
  90. Discoceras spongistriatum | Upper Ordovician
  91. Discoceras vasalemmense | Jõhvi Substage → Oandu Stage
  92. Donacoceras gotlandense |
  93. Dowlingoceras kallholnense | Katian
  94. Dowlingoceras piersalense | Nabala Stage → Pirgu Stage
  95. Endoceras accomodatum | Ordovician
  96. Endoceras duplex | Ordovician
  97. Estonioceras ariense | Kunda Stage
  98. Estonioceras imperfectum | Kunda Stage
  99. Estonioceras kundense | Kunda Stage
  100. Estonioceras lamellosum | Kunda Stage
  101. Estonioceras perforatum | Kunda Stage
  102. Estonioceras subcostatum | Kunda Stage
  103. Estonioceras volchovense | Kunda Stage
  104. Eushantungoceras pseudoimbricatum | Ludlow
  105. Geisonoceras wegelini | Vormsi Stage
  106. Gorbyoceras alternestriatum | Katian
  107. Gorbyoceras clathroannulatum | Nabala Stage → Vormsi Stage
  108. Gorbyoceras textumaraneum | Rakvere Stage → Pirgu Stage
  109. Hedstroemoceras haelluddense | Ordovician
  110. Hemibeloitoceras arduum | Keila Stage
  111. Hemibeloitoceras molis | Keila Stage
  112. Hoeloceras muroni | Keila Stage
  113. Inversoceras perversum |
  114. Inversoceras perversum perversum | Ludlow
  115. Isorthoceras angelini | Katian
  116. Isorthoceras cavi | Keila Stage
  117. Isorthoceras curvilineatum | Katian
  118. Isorthoceras dalecarlense | Hirnantian
  119. Isorthoceras elongatocinctum | Katian
  120. Isorthoceras heroyense | Katian
  121. Isorthoceras junceum | Hirnantian
  122. Isorthoceras luhai | Upper Ordovician
  123. Isorthoceras maris | Keila Stage
  124. Isorthoceras padisense | Keila Stage
  125. Isorthoceras suave | Katian
  126. Isorthoceras vexilli | Keila Stage
  127. Isorthoceras wahlenbergi | Katian
  128. Jeppssonoceras concentratum | Ludlow
  129. Kallholnoceras cornutum | Katian
  130. Kiaeroceras heroyense | Katian
  131. Kinnekulloceras kinnekullense |
  132. Kundoceras evansi | Kunda Stage
  133. Lituites convolvens | Kunda Stage
  134. Lituites hageni | Ordovician
  135. Lituites latum | Aseri Stage
  136. Lituites lituus | Ordovician
  137. Lituites perfectus | Lasnamägi Stage → Uhaku Stage
  138. Lituites praecurrens | Kunda Stage
  139. Lituites procerus | Lasnamägi Stage
  140. Lituites tenuicaulis | Lasnamägi Stage → Uhaku Stage
  141. Lituites törnquisti | Aseri Stage → Lasnamägi Stage
  142. Lyecoceras gotlandense |
  143. Nathorstoceras adnatum | Katian
  144. Nathorstoceras kallholnense | Katian
  145. Neumatoceras borense | Kunda Stage
  146. Neumatoceras parviborense | Kunda Stage
  147. Nilssonoceras latisiphonatum | Kunda Stage → Lasnamägi Stage
  148. Nilssonoceras nilssoni | Kunda Stage → Uhaku Stage
  149. Nybyoceras balticum | Pirgu Stage
  150. Nybyoceras bekkeri | Pirgu Stage
  151. Nybyoceras intermedia | Pirgu Stage
  152. Octameroceras pugil | Wenlock → Ludlow
  153. Octameroceras rimosum | Ludlow
  154. Octameroceras sinuosum | Ludlow
  155. Octameroceras unguifer | Wenlock
  156. Oelandoceras haelluddenense | Kunda Stage
  157. Ordogeisonoceras amplicameratum | Upper Ordovician
  158. Ordogeisonoceras foerstei | Katian
  159. Ordogeisonoceras tartuensis | Keila Stage
  160. Ormoceras brevis |
  161. Ormoceras estonicum | Lasnamägi Stage
  162. Ormoceras heckeri | Pirgu Stage
  163. Ormoceras schmidti | Kunda Stage
  164. Ormoceras volchovense | Aseri Stage → Uhaku Stage
  165. Orthoceras bifoveatum | Lasnamägi Stage → Uhaku Stage
  166. Orthoceras calamiteus |
  167. Orthoceras conicum |
  168. Orthoceras luhai | Vormsi Stage
  169. Orthoceras regulare | Lasnamägi Stage → Uhaku Stage
  170. Orthoceras scabridum | Aseri Stage → Lasnamägi Stage
  171. Orthocycloceras ibex | Silurian
  172. Orthonybyoceras isakari | Keila Stage
  173. Orthonybyoceras moisense | Keila Stage
  174. Palaeodawsonocerina nicolletoides | Katian
  175. Palaeodawsonocerina senckenbergi | Keila Stage → Pirgu Stage
  176. Paldoceras neptunsakerense | Kunda Stage
  177. Paldoceras paldiskense | Aseri Stage → Lasnamägi Stage
  178. Paleocyclendoceras eichwaldi | Uhaku Stage
  179. Paracyclendoceras aluverense | Haljala Stage
  180. Paracyclendoceras compressum | Kunda Stage
  181. Paramiamoceras breviventrum | Kunda Stage
  182. Parvihebetoceras wahli | Porkuni Stage
  183. Patagiumoceras crebristriatum | Wenlock
  184. Patagiumoceras urnulum | Wenlock
  185. Pentameroceras facula | Wenlock → Ludlow
  186. Pentameroceras mirum | Ludlow → Wenlock
  187. Pentameroceras nondum | Wenlock
  188. Pentameroceras tibia | Wenlock
  189. Phtanoncoceras ellipticum | Ordovician
  190. Phtanoncoceras oelandense | Ordovician
  191. Pictetoceras eichwaldi | Kunda Stage
  192. Pictetoceras oliviae | Kunda Stage
  193. Piersaloceras gageli | Pirgu Stage → Porkuni Stage
  194. Plagiostomoceras fragile | Lasnamägi Stage
  195. Plagiostomoceras laevigatum | Aseri Stage → Lasnamägi Stage
  196. Planctoceras arciforme | Kunda Stage
  197. Plemeroceras cassis | Ludlow
  198. Pleurorthoceras organi | Keila Stage
  199. Pleurorthoceras osmundsbergense | Katian
  200. Pomerantsoceras tibia | Porkuni Stage
  201. Porkunioceras tuba | Porkuni Stage
  202. Probillingsites scandinavicum | Katian
  203. Proterocameroceras gdovense | Kunda Stage
  204. Proterocameroceras mishinagorense | Aseri Stage
  205. Proterovaginoceras belemnitiforme | Aseri Stage
  206. Proterovaginoceras estonicum | Aseri Stage
  207. Proterovaginoceras gladius | Aseri Stage → Lasnamägi Stage
  208. Proterovaginoceras incognitum | Kunda Stage
  209. Protocyclendoceras iruense | Kunda Stage
  210. Redpathoceras bullatum | Katian
  211. Redpathoceras depressum | Katian
  212. Redpathoceras magnum | Katian
  213. Retizitteloceras rarum | Hirnantian
  214. Richardsonoceras gastroscopium | Kunda Stage
  215. Rossicoceras compressum |
  216. Rossicoceras depressum | Haljala Stage
  217. Rossicoceras idaverense | Idavere Substage
  218. Rummoceras rummuensis |
  219. Schmidtoceras estonicum | Aseri Stage
  220. Schmidtoceras kundense | Kunda Stage
  221. Schroederoceras danckelmanni | Jõhvi Substage → Keila Stage
  222. Schroederoceras tammikuense | Jõhvi Substage → Keila Stage
  223. Schroederoceras tammikuense chrevitsaense | Jõhvi Substage
  224. Schroederoceras vesenbergense | Rakvere Stage
  225. Schuchertoceras bodense | Katian
  226. Schuchertoceras fryi | Katian
  227. Schuchertoceras ringerikiense | Upper Ordovician
  228. Schuchertoceras troedssoni | Katian
  229. Siljanoceras varians | Katian
  230. Simonssonoceras triangulum | Wenlock
  231. Spyroceras perlaeve | Upper Ordovician
  232. Strandoceras orvikui | Porkuni Stage
  233. Strandoceras sphinx | Vormsi Stage → Pirgu Stage
  234. Striatocycloceras foerstei | Vormsi Stage
  235. Striatocycloceras isbergi | Vormsi Stage
  236. Striatocycloceras obliquum | Nabala Stage
  237. Striatocycloceras romingeri | Haljala Stage → Rakvere Stage
  238. Striatocycloceras undulostriatum | Lasnamägi Stage → Vormsi Stage
  239. Suecoceras angelini | Aseri Stage
  240. Suecoceras aseriense | Aseri Stage
  241. Suecoceras barrandei | Aseri Stage → Uhaku Stage
  242. Suecoceras magnicameratum | Aseri Stage
  243. Suecoceras mishinagorense | Aseri Stage
  244. Suecoceras schlieffeni | Aseri Stage
  245. Tallinoceras nechatuense | Lasnamägi Stage
  246. Tragoceras falcatus | Kunda Stage
  247. Tragoceras purtsensis | Aseri Stage
  248. Transorthoceras osmundbergense | Upper Ordovician
  249. Trilacinoceras discors | Ordovician
  250. Trimeroceras bulbosum | Wenlock
  251. Trimeroceras cylindricum | Ludlow
  252. Trocholites contractus | Uhaku Stage
  253. Trocholites depressus | Lasnamägi Stage
  254. Trocholites gennadii | Keila Stage
  255. Trocholites hospes |
  256. Trocholites incongruus | Lasnamägi Stage
  257. Trocholites odini | Lasnamägi Stage
  258. Trocholites orbis | Uhaku Stage
  259. Tyrioceras kjaerulfi |
  260. Tyrioceras warburgae | Katian
  261. Vaginoceras luganusense | Lasnamägi Stage → Uhaku Stage
  262. Vasalemmoceras tolerabile | Oandu Stage
  263. Ventrolobendoceras grandiense | Lasnamägi Stage
  264. Warburgoceras longitudinale | Katian

Taxon overview

Cephalopoda  or cephalopods are extraordinary molluscs equipped with vertebrate-like intelligence and a unique buoyancy system for locomotion. Cephalopods evolved during the Cambrian where external shell was modified into a chambered buoyancy apparatus. During the mid-Palaeozoic cephalopods diverged into nautiloids and the presently dominant coleoids. Coleoids (i.e. squids, cuttlefish and octopods) internalised their shells which appears to be a unique evolutionary event. The general tendency of shell reduction reflects a trend towards active modes of life and much more complex behaviour.

Cephalopods are exclusively marine animals. They are characterized by bilateral body symmetry, a prominent head, and a set of arms or tentacles (muscular hydrostats) modified from the primitive molluscan foot. Fishermen sometimes call them inkfish, referring to their common ability to squirt ink. About 800 living species of cephalopods have been identified. Two important extinct taxa are the Ammonoidea (ammonites) and Belemnoidea (belemnites).

Selection of related publications

  • Kröger & Aubrechtová, 2017. Cephalopods from reef limestone of the Vasalemma Formation, northern Estonia (latest Sandbian, Upper Ordovician) and the establishment of a local warm-water fauna [DOI]
  • Aubrechtová & Meidla, 2016. The oldest ascocerid cephalopod from the Silurian of Estonia and notes on the biogeography of the order Ascocerida (class Cephalopoda) [DOI]
  • Klug et al., 2015. Normal giants? Temporal and latitudinal shifts of Palaeozoic marine invertebrate gigantism and global change [DOI]
  • Kröger, 2013. The cephalopods of the Boda Limestone, Late Ordovician, of Dalarna, Sweden [DOI]
  • Kröger, 2012. The "Vaginaten": the dominant cephalopods of the Baltoscandian Mid Ordovician endocerid limestone
  • Kröger et al., 2011. Mass concentration of Hirnantian cephalopods from the Siljan District, Sweden; palaeoecology and palaeobiogeographic relationships [DOI]
  • Mutvei & Dunca, 2011. Siphuncular structure in the orders Tarphycerida and Barrandeocerida (Cephalopoda: Nautiloidea) [DOI]
  • Kröger et al., 2009. Discosorids and Oncocerids (Cephalopoda) of the Middle Ordovician Kunda and Aseri Regional Stages of Baltoscandia and the early evolution of these groups
  • Kröger, 2007. Concentrations of juvenile and small adult cephalopods in the Hirnantian cherts (Late Ordovician) of Porkuni, Estonia
  • Kröger & Isakar, 2006. Revision of annulated orthoceridan cephalopods of the Baltoscandic Ordovician
  • Kröger et al., 2005. Soft−tissue attachments in orthocerid and bactritid cephalopods from the Earlyand Middle Devonian of Germany and Morocco
  • Kröger & Mutvei, 2005. Nautiloids with multiple paired muscle scars from Lower-Middle Ordovician of Baltoscandia
  • Kröger, 2004. Revision of Middle Ordovician orthoceratacean nautiloids from Baltoscandia
  • Mutvei, 2002a. Connecting ring structure and its significance for classification of the orthoceratid cephalopods
  • Jacobson, 1999. Five new cephalopod species from the Silurian of Gotland
  • Mutvei, 1998. Siphuncular structure in a Silurian narthecoceratid nautiloid cephalopod from the Island of Gotland
  • Mutvei, 1997. Siphuncular structure in Ordovician endocerid cephalopods
  • Stumbur, H., 1975. Biomertical characteristics of the shell of a living Nautilus
  • Stumbur, H., 1962. Distribution of nautiloids in the Ordovician of Estonia with a description of some new genera
  • Stumbur, H., 1960b. On different ways of evolution of nautiloids
  • Stumbur, H., 1960a. On some ... of nautiloids
  • Stumbur, H., 1959. On the embryonic shells of some Ordovician Tarphyceratida
  • Stumbur, H., 1956. On the nautiloids of Kohila Subseries (Upper Ordovician of East Baltic)
  • Stumbur, K., 1955. Siluri alumiste lademete ostrakoodidefaunast Eesti NSV-s. Diplomitöö nr. 47. Tartu, 67 lk., 10 fotot, juh. A. Rõõmusoks
  • Stumbur, H., 1955. Eesti NSV ülem-ordoviitsiumi nautiloididest