Class Bivalvia Linnaeus, 1758

et: karbid; fi: simpukat; sv: musslor; ru: Двустворчатые;

Taxon ID: 55 / 2018-11-24
Belongs to: Mollusca
Sister taxa: Diplacophora | Gastropoda | Helcionelloida | Hyolitha | Paragastropoda | Rostroconchia | Tergomya | Cephalopoda
Contains: Isofilibranchia | Palaeoheterodonta | Protobranchia | Pteriomorphia
Stratigraphic range: Cambrian Quaternary | ~ 542,0–0,0 Ma
Baltoscandian species (in database): 44

List of Baltoscandian species (may not be complete, up to 1000 species displayed)

  1. Ambonychia incrassata | Vormsi Stage
  2. Ambonychia orvikui | Pirgu Stage → Porkuni Stage
  3. Ambonychinia corrugata | Ordovician
  4. Ambonychinia cylindrica |
  5. Ambonychinia demissa | Upper Ordovician
  6. Ambonychinia elegans | Upper Ordovician
  7. Ambonychinia excelsa | Upper Ordovician
  8. Ambonychinia extumida | Upper Ordovician
  9. Ambonychinia glabra |
  10. Ambonychinia intermedia | Upper Ordovician
  11. Ambonychinia kallholniensis | Upper Ordovician
  12. Ambonychinia kullsbergensis | Ordovician
  13. Ambonychinia levis | Upper Ordovician
  14. Ambonychinia magna | Ordovician
  15. Ambonychinia megumbona | Ordovician
  16. Ambonychinia pediculata | Upper Ordovician
  17. Ambonychinia quadrangulata | Upper Ordovician
  18. Ambonychinia quadrata | Ordovician
  19. Ambonychinia radiata | Upper Ordovician
  20. Ambonychinia rhomboidalis | Upper Ordovician
  21. Ambonychinia semistriata | Ordovician
  22. Ambonychinia skalbergensis | Ordovician
  23. Ambonychinia striata | Ordovician
  24. Ambonychinia subiniqua | Upper Ordovician
  25. Ambonychinia subrotunda | Ordovician
  26. Ambonychinia undulata | Upper Ordovician
  27. Ambonychinia unisulcata | Ordovician
  28. Ambonychinia volvens | Upper Ordovician
  29. Aristerella nitiduloides | Kukruse Stage
  30. Aristerella silurica | Lasnamägi Stage → Uhaku Stage
  31. Evyana baltica | Wenlock
  32. Grammysia obliqua | Ludlow
  33. Ilionia prisca | Ludlow
  34. Kogulanychia bekkeri | Paadla Stage
  35. Macrodesma striata | Upper Ordovician
  36. Mimerodonta atlei | Ludlow
  37. Mimerodonta njordi | Gorstian
  38. Molinicola gotlandica | Wenlock
  39. Mytilarca porkuniensis | Porkuni Stage
  40. Pteronitella retroflexa | Ludfordian
  41. Similodonta wahli | Porkuni Stage
  42. Tancrediopsis macromya | Uhaku Stage → Kukruse Stage
  43. Veimarnella globosa | Lasnamägi Stage → Kukruse Stage
  44. Veimarnella rotundata | Kukruse Stage

Taxon overview

Bivalvia is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs with laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell in two hinged parts. The majority are filter feeders and have no head or radula. The gills have evolved into ctenidia, specialised organs for feeding and breathing. Most bivalves bury themselves in sediment on the seabed, where they are safe from predation. Others lie on the sea floor or attach themselves to rocks or other hard surfaces. A few bore into wood, clay or stone and live inside these substances. Some bivalves, such as the scallops, can swim.
The shell of a bivalve is composed of calcium carbonate, and consists of two, usually similar, parts called valves. These are joined together along one edge by a flexible ligament that, in conjunction with interlocking "teeth" on each of the valves, forms the hinge. This arrangement allows the shell to be opened and closed without the two halves becoming disarticulated. The shell is typically bilaterally symmetrical, with the hinge lying in the sagittal plane. Adult shell sizes vary from fractions of a millimetre to over a metre in length, but the majority of species do not exceed 10 cm.
Bivalves appear in the fossil record first in the early Cambrian more than 500 million years ago.

Visual identification guide (Bivalvia)


Selection of related publications

  • Křiž, 2008. A new bivalve community from the lower Ludlow of the Prague Basin (Perunica, Bohemia) [DOI]
  • Isakar & Sinitsyna, 1993. A new species Megalomoidea walliseri (Bivalvia) from the Silurian of Estonia
  • Isakar, 1991. Harjuan (Late Ordovician) new Bivalves and a new Gastropod from North Estonia
  • Isakar, 1990. Bivalvia and Gastropoda
  • Kisselev et al., 1990. Atlas of Upper Ordovician and Silurian molluscs from the nort-western part of East-European platform.
  • Liljedahl, 1989b. Fylgia baltica gen. et sp. nov. (Bivalvia, Mollusca) from the Silurian of Gotland [DOI]
  • Isakar & Sinitsyna, 1985. Redescription of E. Eichwald's Ordovician bivalve species
  • Isakar, 1985. New bivalve genus Kogulanychia from the Upper Silurian of Estonia
  • Sinicyna, 1983. New genus of Bivalve molluscs from the Middle Ordovician of north-east of East-European platform
  • Öpik, 1930b. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Kukruse-(C2-C3-)Stufe in Eesti. IV
  • Öpik, 1930a. Brachiopoda Protremata der estländischen ordovizischen Kukruse-Stufe
  • Bekker, 1924b. The Devonian Rocks of the Irboska district (S. E. Estonia) with the description of a new cemented brachiopod
  • Bekker, 1921. The Kuckers Stage of the Ordovician Rocks in N-E Estonia